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十年,我们一直在思考,如何让您结束托福雅思的痛苦;
终于,今天我们拥有了一支全国顶尖级团队--百利名师!

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名师辅导

  • 课首小测
  • 上次课后
    作业答疑
  • 新课
  • 本次课
    内容总结
  • 布置
    课后作业

GMAT考试-课首小测试
---上堂课内容回顾


知识点回顾


倒装结构判断的依据
倒装结构的主语一般在哪里
助动词的种类
定语从句的先行词如何判断


练习题


The Achaemenid empire of Persia reached the Indus Valley in the fifth century B.C., bringing the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and southern Indian alphabets.


(A) the Aramaic script with it, from which was derived both northern and (B) the Aramaic script with it, and from which deriving both the northern and the (C) with it the Aramaic script, from which derive both the northern and the (D) with it the Aramaic script, from which derives both northern and (E) with it the Aramaic script, and deriving from it both the northern and


Developing nations in various parts of the world have amassed $700 billion in debts; at stake, should a significant number of these debts be repudiated, is the solvency of some of the world's largest multinational banks.


(A) should a significant number of these debts be repudiated, is (B) should a significant number of these debts be repudiated, are (C) should they repudiate a significant number of these debts, are (D) if there is a repudiation of a significant number of these debts, would be (E) if a significant number of these debts will be repudiated, is


Out of America's fascination with all things antique have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that are bringing back the chaise lounge, the overstuffed sofa, and the claw-footed bathtub.


(A) things antique have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that are bringing (B) things antique has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that is bringing (C) things that are antiques has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that bring (D) antique things have grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that are bringing (E) antique things has grown a market for bygone styles of furniture and fixtures that bring.


上次课后随堂答疑


1.In a review of 2,000 studies of human behavior that date back to the 1940s, two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.


psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, psychologists, declaring that most of the studies failed in not controlling for such variables like social class and family size, and psychologists declared that since most of the studies, having failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, psychologists declared that since most of the studies fail in controlling for such variables like social class and family size, psychologists declared that since most of the studies had failed to control for variables such as social class and family size,


(In a review )(of 2,000 studies )(of human behavior )(that date back to the 1940s), two Swiss psychologists, declaring that since most of the studies had failed to control for such variables as social class and family size, none could be taken seriously.


主语two Swiss psychologists;declaring分词作定语修饰主语,紧接着是that引导的定语从句;因为有since连词,所以定语从句内部有两个句子。因为后面是could,fail发生在could be taken之前所以用过去完成。Such as表举例;


A:成分确实,没有谓语动词。Fail to do B:举例用到like,讲逻辑关系从因果关系改为并列关系 fail in not doing 不是又表示肯定了么 C:定语从句中一个连词一个句子,having D:举例用到like,fail的时态也不对 E:正确


习语举例such as 用错的有:BD 成分缺失:AC 时态:D Awkward : B


疑问:


(1)那个for such variables,为什么要for,control不是及物动词;
(2)如果是定语从句改成分词作定语,那个someone who had failed to do sth 应该要怎么变。现在分词不是表现主动和进行或者一般的动作么,那如果是这样的话C的having是不是时态也是有问题的;
(3)fail in dong 和 fail to do 都可以用吧没什么差别吧?


2.Manufacturers rate batteries in watt-hours; if they rate the watt-hour higher, the longer the battery can be expected to last.


if they rate the watt-hour higher, the longer rating the watt-hour higher, it is that much longer the higher the watt-hour rating, the longer the higher the watt-hour rating, it is that much longer that when the watt-hour rating is higher, the longer it is


有分号,前后是两个完整的句子,they指代 Manufacturers


A: 是逻辑语义不合理,不是Manufacturers 让 battery 长久
B: rating 没有逻辑主语
C: 正确 the + 比较级 前一个是从句,后一个是主句,这里的前一个相当于一个条件状语从句
D: 这个it is that 不知道怎么分析
E: it is 不就是指的 the battery,但是后面本身就有 the battery


不平行:ADE
Dangling modifier : B


新课


content:


Grammar: A Closer Look
Meaning: A Closer Look
Meaning: Choose Your Words
Meaning: Place Your Words
Meaning: Match Your Words
Meaning: Avoid Redundancy
What About Concision?


principles of good business writing


Grammar: Does the sentence adhere to the rules of Standard Written English?
Does everyone have their book?
Meaning: Does the sentence clearly indicate the authors intended meaning?
the sentence must reflect the authors intent.
The correct answer can resolve ambiguity in the original version, but you should not change the meaning that the author intends.


Grammar: A Closer Look


subject-verb agreement;
parallelism;
pronouns;
modifiers;
verb tense, voice, and mood;
comparisons;
idioms.


Meaning: A Closer Look


Sometimes the original sentence will have a clear, unambiguous meaning
At other times, the original sentence will be confusing


Meaning: Choose Your Words


My decision to drive a hybrid car was motivated by ECONOMIC considerations.
ECONOMICAL considerations motivated my decision to drive a hybrid car.


Meaning: Place Your Words


ALL the children are covered in mud.
The children are ALL covered in mud.
ONLY the council votes on Thursdays.
The council votes ONLY on Thursdays.


本次课内容总结


当一个事件的发生会引发另一事件时,二者就构成了因果关系。引发另一事件发生的事件叫原因,原因所导致的事件是结果。


大多数因果关系的结论都有缺陷,因为对所述关系可能会有别的解释:其他一些原因能够解释该结果;
某第三事件可能是所述因果二者发生的原因;
因果倒置;
事件之间相互联系但不是因果联系;
或者整个事情的发生都是偶然的。


因果陈述可以用在一个论证的前提或结论中:


如果因果陈述就是结论,那么推理就有缺陷;
如果因果陈述就是前提,那么论证可能有缺陷,但这不是由因果陈述引起的。
有两种方法在逻辑问题中往往导致因果关系的结论:
1、一个事件发生在另一事件之前;
2、两个(或多个)事件同时发生。


反驳某因果关系的切入点


找到另一种原因来解释所述结果
A.证明即使原因发生了,结果也不一定发生
B.证明虽然结果发生了,原因却没有发生
C.因果倒置
D.证明构成因果陈述所使用的资料存在一个统计问题


布置课后作业


Meaning


13th Edition: 10, 14, 20, 21, 25, 31, 39, 49, 58, 94, 96,135 Verbal Review. 3, 18, 22, 36, 54, 72


10. The widely accepted big bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.


(A) that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding
(B) that the universe had begun in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and had been expanding
(C) that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that has expanded
(D) the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that is expanding
(E) the universe to have begun in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding


14. Rising inventories, when unaccompanied correspondingly by increases in sales. can lead to production cutbacks that would hamper economic growth.


(A) when unaccompanied correspondingly by increases in sales, can lead
(B) when not accompanied by corresponding increases in sales, possibly leads
(C) when they were unaccompanied by corresponding sales increases, can lead
(D) if not accompanied by correspondingly increased sales, possibly leads
(E) if not accompanied by corresponding increases in sales, can lead


20. Retail sales rose 0.8 of I percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter


(A) that personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubled that of
(B) that personal spending in the July-September quarter would more than double
(C) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it more than doubled
(D) of personal spending in the July-September quarter more than doubling that of
(E) of personal spending in the July-September quarter, that it would more than double that of


25. Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood. are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.


(A) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are (B) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are (C) Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are (D) Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, (E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood


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